Food and diet
A healthy, nutritious diet can help you look and feel your best, and is easier than you might think. Healthy eating can be really straightforward.
A balanced diet
A diet based on starchy foods such as potatoes, bread, rice and pasta; with plenty of fruit and vegetables; some protein-rich foods such as meat, fish and lentils; some milk and dairy foods; and not too much fat, salt or sugar, will give you all the nutrients you need.
When it comes to a healthy diet, balance is the key to getting it right. This means eating a wide variety of foods in the right proportions, and consuming the right amount of food and drink to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight.
Most adults in England are overweight or obese. That means many of us are eating more than we need, and should eat less. And it’s not just food: some drinks can also be high in calories. Most adults need to eat and drink fewer calories in order to lose weight, even if they already eat a balanced diet.
To have a healthy, balanced diet, people should try to eat:
- Plenty of fruit and vegetables – Did you know that we should be eating at least five portions of a variety of fruit and veg every day?
- Plenty of starchy foods, such as bread, rice, potatoes and pasta – Choose wholegrain varieties whenever you can, or eat potatoes with their skins on for more fibre.
- Some meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein – These are important sources of protein, vitamins and minerals, and form part of a healthy, balanced diet.
- Some milk and dairy foods – Go for lower-fat milk and dairy foods. These are healthier options to help you get enough protein and calcium.
- Just a small amount of food and drinks that are high in fat and/or sugar – You can cut down on fat and sugar by eating fewer sweets, cakes and biscuits, and drinking fewer sugary soft drinks.
Try to choose a variety of different foods from the four main food groups.
Most people in the UK eat and drink too many calories, too much fat, sugar and salt, and not enough fruit, vegetables, oily fish and fibre. It’s important to have some fat in your diet, but you don’t need to eat any foods from the “foods and drinks high in fat and/or sugar” group as part of a healthy diet.
Fruit and vegetables: are you getting your 5 a day?
Fruit and vegetables are a vital source of vitamins and minerals. It’s advised that we eat at least five portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables each day.
There’s evidence that people who eat at least five portions a day have a lower risk of heart disease, stroke and some cancers.
What’s more, eating five portions is not as hard as it sounds. Just one apple, banana, pear or similar-sized fruit is one portion. A slice of pineapple or melon is one portion. Three heaped tablespoons of vegetables is another portion.
Having a sliced banana with your morning cereal is a quick way to get one portion. Swap your mid-morning biscuit for a tangerine, and add a side salad to your lunch. Have a portion of vegetables with dinner, and snack on dried fruit in the evening to reach your five a day.
Starchy foods in your diet
Starchy foods should make up around one third of everything we eat. This means we should base our meals on these foods.
Potatoes are an excellent choice and a great source of fibre. Leave the skins on where possible to keep in more of the fibre and vitamins. For example, when having boiled potatoes or a jacket potato, eat the skin too.
Try to choose wholegrain or wholemeal varieties of starchy foods, such as brown rice, wholewheat pasta and brown, wholemeal or higher fibre white bread. They contain more fibre (often referred to as “roughage”), and usually more vitamins and minerals than white varieties.
Meat, fish, eggs and beans: all good sources of protein
These foods are all good sources of protein, which is essential for the body to grow and repair itself. They are also good sources of a range of vitamins and minerals.
Meat is a good source of protein, vitamins and minerals, including iron, zinc and B vitamins. It is also one of the main sources of vitamin B12. Try to eat lean cuts of meat and skinless poultry whenever possible to cut down on fat. Always cook meat thoroughly.
Fish is another important source of protein, and contains many vitamins and minerals. Oily fish is particularly rich in omega-3 fatty acids.
Aim for at least two portions of fish a week, including one portion of oily fish. You can choose from fresh, frozen or canned, but remember that canned and smoked fish can often be high in salt.
Eggs and pulses (including beans, nuts and seeds) are also great sources of protein. Nuts are high in fibre and a good alternative to snacks high in saturated fat, but they do still contain high levels of fat, so eat them in moderation.
Milk and dairy foods: avoid full fat varieties
Milk and dairy foods such as cheese and yoghurt are good sources of protein. They also contain calcium, which helps keep your bones healthy.
To enjoy the health benefits of dairy without eating too much fat, use semi-skimmed, 1% fat or skimmed milk, as well as lower-fat hard cheeses or cottage cheese, and lower-fat yoghurt.
Eat less fat and sugar
Most people in the UK eat too much fat and sugar. Fats and sugar are both sources of energy for the body, but when we eat too much of them we consume more energy than we burn, and this can mean that we put on weight. This can lead to obesity, which increases our risk of type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, heart disease and stroke.
Different types of fat
Saturated fat is found in foods such as cheese, sausages, butter, cakes, biscuits and pies. Most people in the UK eat too much saturated fat, which can raise our cholesterol, putting us at increased risk of heart disease.
Unsaturated fats, on the other hand, can help to lower cholesterol and provide us with the essential fatty acids needed to help us stay healthy. Oily fish, nuts and seeds, avocados, olive oils and vegetable oils are sources of unsaturated fat.
Try to cut down on foods that are high in saturated fat and have smaller amounts of foods that are rich in unsaturated fat instead. For a healthy choice, use just a small amount of vegetable oil or reduced fat spread instead of butter, lard or ghee. When having meat, choose lean cuts and cut off any visible fat. Read on to find out how to eat less saturated fat.
Sugar occurs naturally in foods such as fruit and milk, but we don’t need to cut down on these types of foods. Sugar is also added to lots of foods and drinks such as sugary fizzy drinks, cakes, biscuits, chocolate, pastries, ice cream and jam. It’s also contained in some ready-made savoury foods such as pasta sauces and baked beans.
Most of us need to cut down on foods high in added sugars. Instead of a fizzy drink, for example, try sparkling water. Have a currant bun as a snack instead of a pastry.
Getting the balance right
It’s a good idea to try to get the balance right every day, but you don’t need to do it at every meal. You might find it easier to get the balance right over a longer period, like a week. Try to choose options that are lower in salt when you can.
Eating healthily is about eating the right amount of food for your energy needs. In England, most adults are either overweight or obese. This means many of us are eating more than we need, and should eat and drink fewer calories to lose weight.